Batch creating a list of folders using the Terminal

Batch creating folders with the terminal is easy and efficient.

Here’s a quick tip for anyone needing to create a large set of folders. This is often required when building the hierarchy of a large web site, or just for organizing the filesystem on your computer.

For example, in Graphic & Web Design we have the end-of-program comprehensive assessment. This is what the list of items required for the assessment looks like:

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Zachary Simpson Graphic Designer – Creativity Driven by Creatives

Kodak Black Art

About Me

20 years old and truly passionate and motivated to grasp as much knowledge in regards with this field. Whether it be freelancing during the summer or working on personal projects on the side, my drive to get better and succeed is more than present. Currently studying in Graphic & Web Design (GWD) at John Abbott College and looking for a place to stage during the winter 2019 semester.

Currently looking for a place to stage and potentially given a full-time job afterward. As a young creative and competitive individual it is important to let potential employers know where I am heading in the near future. Always looking for opportunities no matter what they may be, I will be enrolling into University for the 2019 fall semester as I am a student-athlete. With that said I am willing to withdraw from University before starting If I am offered a full-time job that interests me greatly.

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Aziza Abbasi – Who is She?

A white abstract drawing on a black background.
©Aziza Abbasi, 2018

My Goals

Hi there, my name is Aziza Abbasi and I am nineteen years old. I enjoy creating multiple works of art such as illustrated portraits, tattoo designs, general design patterns, digital/physical artwork and more. I savor abstract forms of art and exploring controversial topics and ideas. My goal in the near future is to integrate myself into a creative work atmosphere and build a secure work ethic. I am interested in art direction, illustration and print designs, to mention a few. I plan on working a part-time job during the summer. As well as dipping a bigger hand into freelancing by increasing my current client list in order to expand my resumé.

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The Short History of Website Building

Ever wonder how the web started out way back when? Check out this amazing infographic by Diana Valeanu that was published on Designmodo.

From one single server and web page in 1991 to nearly two billion web sites this year – this infographic plots the changes and milestones in the history of the World Wide Web.

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Atom the hackable text editor

Atom: The Modern Cross-platform Text Editor

Atom is an amazing open source text editor built by the GitHub community. It is completely cross-platform and is available on macOS, Windows and Linux. It is available at

The editor is completely hackable, meaning you can configure it work exactly as you would like – either through the use of plugins or by editing it’s code yourself.

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Explore web career path job titles & descriptions

Explore Rachel Manning’s detailed picture of the web industry in Dissecting Front-end Job Titles.

Web Designer — Probably went to school for graphic design. This role has mostly been replaced by UI design since the rise of appreciation for good user experience.

UX Designer — Often a researcher that brings the site to the stage of wireframes and prototypes.

UI Designer — Designs the look and feel of the site, often creating an advanced prototype.

Although it starts off mostly talking about Computer Science students, the discussion of design and interactivity careers is very good. It’s an important read for soon-to-be graduates interested in web careers.

Soon you will be meeting teams of people. All of them with very different responsibilities and skills. This article helps differentiate the forest from the trees.

Structuring plain text data

The internet, and the World Wide Web are based on plain text.

Everything on the web is plain text: .html, .css and .js files. (Pictures, audio and video aren’t in plain text of course – but they were added on the web much later.) To be a productive web designer, you need to be able to efficiently edit text files – and even several ones at once.

Screenshot of the very first web page hosted at CERN in Switzerland.
Screenshot of the very first web page hosted at CERN in Switzerland.

In 1989, when Tim Berners-Lee and Robert Cailliau invented HTTP and HTML, there was no “visual” world wide web. The world would have to wait until the launch of Mosaic to have a “graphical browser”.

For years, and even decades, computer networks were criss-crossed by typing commands in Terminals and using text-only tools like FTP for transferring files or various text editors (from nano to Vim and Emacs) to create and edit them.

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Basic BASH Terminal commands for Web Designers

The moment you choose to get into web design and development, you choose to enter a universe of endless connections in between machines scattered across the globe.

Louise Bourgeois’s Maman spider sculpture and the web it cast in shadows at dawn
Louise Bourgeois’s Maman spider sculpture and the web it cast in shadows at dawn. National Gallery of Canada. Ottawa, Ontario Canada. Photo ©Eric Girouard.

There is you at your computer, and then there is everything else on the internet. By definition, the rest of the internet is “remote” to you dear reader of this post.

So, once again by definition, web design is a career where all the important stuff happens on other machines – on “remote web servers” usually – and being able to connect to such a machine to create and edit files and folders as well as manage transfers of data from machine to machine is a valuable skill.

The most efficient tool for logging into any remote computer is the CLI (“command-line interface“) which you gain access to when you start an application called the Terminal.

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Create a valid HTML 5 template using PHP Includes

This is an old video I posted many years ago to my own web site. It is – I believe – the most popular post I have ever created. At last count, the video has over twenty-five thousand hits. I had the step-by-step written tutorial on my site back then and I lost track of how many times it was the most popular thing on my web site each month.

This is a beginner’s tutorial on how to create a valid HTML 5 template that uses PHP includes (“require” actually) that assembles the code on the server. This gives designers the opportunity to build a theme (or “skin”) that can manage the look of an entire web site – large or small.

This type of coding is a stepping-stone exercise in between coding HTML by hand and having a fully dynamic database-driven site, such as WordPress, or a custom content management system (“CMS”).


Installing & Configuring the LAMP Virtualbox web server


The screenshots in this tutorial were created on both an iMac (macOS 10.13.6) and a Ubuntu 18.04 Linux machine. When you configuring your instance of Virtualbox the appearance of the interface and the location of some controls may be different. The functionality remains the same on every platform (macOS, Windows or Linux).


Please note that Linux is a case-sensitive filesystem. This means that “file.html” and “File.html” (different capitalization of the letter F) are understood by the computer as two different files!

So, in web design, please standardize your file or folder naming to:

  1. lowercase letter and/or numbers only
  2. periods reserved for use as the last character before the file name extension ex: .html, .css, etc.
  3. no spaces in file/folder names

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